Geography of KalyaniKalyani is located in southern Nadia district within the state of West Bengal. This eco-friendly planned city was built post-independence and placed at a distance of 50 kms from the metropolis of Kolkata. The geographical boundaries of Kalyani are set by Kanchrapara in the north, the Sealdah-Ranaghat railway line in the east, the Bhagirathi River in the west and the Bager-khal in the south.
Kalyani township is situated between 88°41'- 88°47'E and 22°945'- 22°995'N at an altitude of 7.8 m. Further, the total area of this town is about 29.24 sq. km. Kalyani is situated at a distance of only 60 km from the Tropic of Cancer. Kalyani lies in the seismic zone III, according to the Bureau of Indian Standards mapping a region's increasing susceptibility towards earthquakes in the order from I to V. It also falls within the "high risk" wind and cyclone zone as per a report of the United Nations Development Programme.
Climate of Kalyani
Climate of Kalyani
Kalyani has a hot and humid climate as common in tropical regions. There are three main seasons; Summer, Monsoons and Winter. April-May records high temperature while the average temperature through Summer is around 30° C. Annual rainfall in Kalyani is about 1250 mm per year with most of the rain during the monsoons from June to October. The rainy season peaks in the month of September with an average precipitation of 274 mm. In Winter, particularly December and January, the temperature varies between 10°C to 15°C. The humidity is higher through the months of July to September . Maximum humidity is around 91% while the minimum humidity is around 58%. The winter months in Kalyani provide a favourable climate for the growth and blossoming of numerous species of flowering plants, herbs and shrubs dotting its landscape.
Topography and Soil in Kalyani
Topography of Kalyani
Located along the eastern banks of the river Hooghly, and formed inside the upper Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Kalyani has a fertile soil mostly alluvial in nature. It is mostly neutral with the soil pH varying between 6.5- 7.5. Technically, the township of Kalyani is placed over the pericratonic tertiary Bengal basin. While Kalyani itself does not have any forest cover, the Bethuadahari forest near Krishnagar within Nadia district is a welcome addition to the landscape surrounding Kalyani. Some of the beautiful rivers near Kalyani in Nadia are River Churni along Ranaghat, Jalangi flowing beside Krishnanagar, Bhagirathi, Mathabhanga and Ichamati rivers.
Flora and Fauna in Kalyani
With a rich bio-diversity, Kalyani is rapidly becoming a prospective eco-destination within the district of Nadia. Kalyani falls under the tropical moist deciduous vegetation category and has both medicinal and ornamental trees in the town.
The township of Kalyani is adorned with abundant forms of greenery including beautiful flowering trees, both exotic and indigenous in nature. The exotic plants are dominated by Indo-Malaysian, African, American and Australian in origin. At present, 54 plant species in Kalyani have an ornamental value while 70 plant species have medicinal and economic uses. Some of the trees locally named are the Shonajhuri, Babla, Khayer, Petpuria, Bel, Ata, Korui, Kathal, Shimul, Tal, Palash, Chhatim and others. Some of the ornamental exotic plants adorning the township include Pick Cassia, Java Cassia, Burmese Cassia, Fish Tail Palm, Gulmohar etc.
Kalyani is also a haven for bird lovers. It has more than 40 migratory bird species which shelter in its marshy wetlands. Some of the aquatic birds which the discerning eco-tourist can locate are the Cotton Teal, Lesser Whistling Teal, Blue Winged Teal, Dabchik, Pin Tail Duck, Indian Mor Hen, Comb Duck, Purple Moor Hen, Red Wattled Lapwing, Little Egret and Pond Heron. The terrestrial birds include Pied Myna, Jungle Myna, Common Myna, Crow, Pheasant,Cooper Smith, Black Headed Oriole, Mack Pie, Blue throated Barbet, Hawk, Robin, Pied Crested Cuckoo, House Swift, Brahminy Kite, Palm Swift, Drongo, Owl, Spotted Dove, Bat, Purple Sunbird and many others. In Kalyani one can also spot some of its various animal species like the Squirrel, Civet, different kinds of Toads, Snakes, Languor, Jackals, Oyster, different varieties of spiders, moths, leach and butterflies.
Thus the beautiful town of Kalyani is dotted with numerous parks and gardens fostering a wide range of flowering plants offering the tourist a welcome eco-break in the midst of nature. One of the greenest cities in West Bengal, Kalyani is a much sought after tourist destination for all nature lovers.